Medicines are obtained by chemical synthesis or from medicinal raw materials by special processing.
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Medicinal plants, animal organs, as well as products of mineral and bacterial origin are used as medicinal raw materials. According to the mechanism of therapeutic and prophylactic action, the medical reference book of medicines divides them into two large groups: some have this effect, changing the functions of certain physiological systems of the body, others - destroying microbes and parasites - causative agents of diseases.
The emergence of new symptoms during the course of the disease may raise the suspicion of a complication. According to their prognostic value, symptoms are divided into favorable, unfavorable and threatening. Correct diagnosis is facilitated by a critical assessment of the identified symptoms, especially during questioning, given the possibility of aggravation, simulation and dissimulation. If a patient has several symptoms, one should try to establish their single mechanism of occurrence and determine the syndrome. The Medical Encyclopedia contains detailed descriptions of the symptoms of various diseases.
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Symptoms can be an expression of not only morphological changes (for example, enlargement of the liver, spleen), but also functional disorders (motor, secretory and others). Distinguish between symptoms characteristic of damage to any one system (for example, a cough is typical for damage to the respiratory system), and symptoms that occur when several systems are affected (for example, shortness of breath is typical for damage to the respiratory and cardiovascular systems). By the time of onset, symptoms are divided into early and late (appear, respectively, in the early and late stages of the disease).
Symptoms may indicate the presence of a pathological process in the body (for example, jaundice, cyanosis) or be caused by protective reflexes (for example, vomiting with food poisoning, coughing when a foreign body enters the respiratory tract). Some symptoms observed in sick people can also occur in physiological conditions (for example, palpitations occur not only with damage to the cardiovascular system, but also with excitement, physical stress).
Symptom - a sign of the disease, revealed by questioning or objective examination of the patient. The symptom is the basis for the diagnosis and determination of the prognosis of the disease (for example, the appearance of bloody vomiting or melena in peptic ulcer disease worsens the prognosis).
Treatment of patients at the feldsher-obstetric station (FAP) is carried out within the competence and rights of a paramedic and midwife. At the FAP, first aid is provided to patients at outpatient appointments and at home, patients are consulted with a local doctor, and his appointments are carried out. In almost every article in the medical encyclopedia, along with a description of the symptoms, recommendations for treatment are also given.
Of decisive importance is the organization of the treatment of diseases, which allows the fulfillment of all therapeutic appointments. The correct organization of treatment involves an approximate determination of the timing of treatment for a specific disease, a reasonable plan for the implementation of medical procedures (at home or in a hospital), the sequence of application of various forms of treatment. Successful treatment is the result of multiple healthcare professionals, a collective effort to ensure both diagnostic testing and therapeutic procedures and care.
In carrying out any treatment, an important place is occupied by patient care, which is carried out in a hospital by the nursing staff. Nursing staff should pay as much attention as other types of treatment.
Symptomatic treatment involves the elimination of some symptoms, regardless of their cause or pathogenesis of the disease (for example, the appointment of amidopyrine for headaches, codeine for coughing). Symptomatic treatment of illnesses is easily accomplished and quickly relieves the patient. However, one must remember that sometimes fighting a symptom of the disease before recognizing its cause can be harmful (for example, prescribing a laxative for stool retention in a patient with acute appendicitis). Treatment of diseases according to vital indications is the main task of emergency therapy.
In the process of pathogenetic treatment of diseases, methods are used that change the reactivity of the body in order to change the course of the disease for the better. Since in allergic diseases, the excessive reactivity of the body is leading in the development of the pathological process, hormone therapy is used to reduce this reactivity. In cases of decreased reactivity of the body, physical and chemical methods described in the reference book are used to normalize it - physiotherapy, protein therapy, etc.
In some cases, as a result of using these methods, one or another function is enhanced (for example, increased heart systole when prescribing digitalis, urination when taking diuretics), in other cases, the function is normalized (for example, the function of the thyroid gland is normalized as a result of taking radioactive iodine or prompt removal of part thyroid gland with hyperthyroidism). In some cases, insufficient organ function is compensated by the introduction of a missing physiological substance in the form of a drug (for example, insulin for diabetes, hydrochloric acid for achlorhydria).
With this type of treatment, using various therapeutic methods, they often try to restore the functions of organs and systems impaired as a result of the disease. Depending on the nature and origin of the dysfunction of one or another organ, various methods of treating diseases are used: pharmacological, physical or operational.